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Windows 10 1703 download iso itar compliance officer – windows 10 1703 download iso itar compliance .Download Windows 10
The prime supplier backed by his industrial organization is in charge of production, integration, and launch preparation of the launch vehicle. To illustrate the industrial experience concentrated behind the Soyuz prime supplier, the Figure 1. Main suppliers 1. The agency also performs interdisciplinary coordination of national scientific and application space programs. It was created in February by a decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation.
Operations under FSA responsibility include more than aeronautic and space companies and organizations. The Samara Space Center is one of the world leaders in the design of launchers, spacecraft and related systems. Its history goes back to the start of the space program in when a branch of the Moscow OKB-1 design bureau was established in the city of Kuibyshev now known as Samara. The Center developed a family of launch vehicles derived from the OKB-1’s R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile.
Approximately 10 versions were developed, including Sputnik which carried the first man-made satellite into orbit , Vostok used for the initial manned space flight , Molniya, and Soyuz. In addition to years of experience building launch vehicles, TsSKB-Progress has also built numerous earth observation and scientific satellites.
NPO Lavotchkine adapts, produces and is the technical authority for the Fregat upper stage. NPO Lavotchkin is also the technical authority for the assembled upper composite. Barmin Design Bureau for General Engineering, was founded in KBOM specialises in the design and operation of launch facilities, space rocket ground infrastructure and in orbit processing equipment.
Introduction This section provides the information necessary to make preliminary performance assessments for the Soyuz LV. The paragraphs that follow present the vehicle reference performance, typical accuracy, attitude orientation, and mission duration. The provided data covers a wide range of missions from spacecraft delivery to geostationary transfer orbit GTO , to injection into sun-synchronous and polar orbit, as well as low and high circular or elliptical orbit, and escape trajectories.
Performance data presented in this manual are not fully optimized as they do not take into account the specificity of the Customer’s mission. Nevertheless, the performance value may slightly vary for specific missions due to ground path and azimuth specific constraints. The customer is requested to contact Arianespace for accurate data.
Ascent of the first three stages The flight profile is optimized for each mission. The upper composite Fregat with payload is separated on a sub-orbital path, Fregat being used, in most cases, to reach an intermediate parking orbit the so-called intermediate orbit ascent profile , in other cases after separation from the third stage, a single Fregat boost may inject the upper composite into the targeted orbit the so-called direct ascent profile.
The optimum mission profile will be selected depending upon specific mission requirements. A typical Soyuz three-stage ascent profile and the associated sequence of events are shown in Figure 2.
A typical ground track for the lower three stages is presented in the Figure 2. An example of the evolution of altitude and relative velocity during the ascent profile of the first three stages is presented in Figure 2. Jettisoning of the payload fairing can take place at different times depending on the aerothermal flux requirements on the payload. Typically, fairing separation takes place depending on the trajectory between and seconds from liftoff owing to aerothermal flux limitations.
Lift-off 0 s 2. Fairing jettisoning s 4. Third stage lower skirt jettisoning s 6. Block A Sep. Galliot Fairing Block I Sep. Fregat upper stage flight profile Following the third stage cut-off, the restartable Fregat upper stage delivers the payload or payloads to their final orbits.
In this case, the Fregat ACS thrusters are operated 5 seconds after separation from the third stage followed 55 seconds later with the ignition of the main Fregat engine.
Fregat burns are then performed to transfer the payload as described above. Up to 20 burns may be provided by the Fregat to reach the final orbit or to deliver the payload to the different orbits. Fregat deorbitation or orbit disposal manoeuvre After spacecraft separation and following the time delay needed to provide a safe distance between the Fregat upper stage and the spacecraft, the Fregat typically conducts a deorbitation or orbit disposal manoeuvre.
This manoeuvre is carried out by an additional burn of the Fregat’s ACS thrusters or in some cases by the main engine. Parameters of the “safe” orbit or entry into the earth’s atmosphere will be chosen in accordance with international laws pertaining to space debris and will be coordinated with the user during mission analysis.
General performance data 2. Geostationary transfer orbit missions 2. Standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit GTO The geostationary satellites will benefit of the advantageous location of the Guiana Space Centre: its low latitude minimizes the satellite on-board propellant needed to reach the equatorial plane, providing additional lifetime. Za is equivalent to true altitude at first apogee The longitude of the first descending node is usually located around TBD deg West.
The Soyuz performance for this orbit with the RD or the RD 3rd stage engine is: kg and kg respectively. Standard GTO mission: 1. Lift-off 2. Satellite separation 5. It is applicable to satellites with liquid propulsion systems giving the possibility of several transfer burns to the GEO and which tank capacity allows the optimal use of the performance gain. The satellite propellant gain can be used for lifetime extension or for an increase of the satellite drymass.
The satellite realizes then a Perigee Velocity Augmentation maneuver using proper extra propellant. The overall propulsion budget of the mission translates in a benefit for the spacecraft in terms of lifetime for a given dry-mass or in terms of dry mass for a given lifetime compared to the standard GTO injection profile.
The injection scheme is the same as the one presented for the GTO mission, but with a final Fregat burn to change the inclination and circularize on the GSO. Super GTO and GSO injection While the injection orbit for a single launch on Soyuz can be optimized with a higher apogee, and even, technically speaking, with a launch directly on the GSO, the standard injection remains on the standard GTO that provides the customer the full benefit of the compatibility of the two launch systems: Ariane and Soyuz.
SSO and Polar orbits The earth observation, meteorological and scientific satellites will benefit of the Soyuz capability to delivery them directly into the sun synchronous orbits SSO or polar circular orbits.
Performance data for polar orbits are presented in Figure 2. These data are to be considered for trade-off studies and require flight safety approval to confirm feasibility of the targeted orbit. Other circular orbits Almost all orbit inclinations can be accessed from the CSG. Supply missions to the International Space Station, satellite constellations deployment and scientific missions can also be performed by Soyuz from the CSG.
LV performance data for circular orbit missions with inclination 56 and 63 deg, and altitudes between and 25, km are presented in Figure 2. For precise data, please contact Arianespace. LV Performance [kg] Circular Orbit Altitude [km] Figure 2. Orbit inclination 56 deg. Elliptical orbit missions The Fregat restartable capability offers a great flexibility to servicing a wide range of elliptical orbits. In some cases, when a lower altitude of perigee is required, the mission will be reduced to two Fregat burns.
LV performance data for a Earth escape missions LV Performance [kg] The performance data for earth escape missions is presented in Figure 2. For more accurate data, users should contact Arianespace for a performance estimate and a mission-adapted profile. Injection accuracy The accuracy of the four-stage Soyuz is determined mainly by the performance of the Fregat upper stage.
Conservative accuracy data depending on type of the mission are presented in Table 2. Mission-specific injection accuracy will be calculated as part of the mission analysis. Table 2. Mission duration Mission duration from lift-off until separation of the spacecraft on the final orbit depends on the selected mission profile, specified orbital parameters, injection accuracy, and the ground station visibility conditions at spacecraft separation.
Typically, critical mission events such as payload separation are carried out within the visibility of LV ground stations. This allows for the receipt of near-real-time information on relevant flight events, orbital parameters on-board estimation, and separation conditions.
The typical durations of various missions without the visibility constraint of spacecraft separation are presented in Table 2. Actual mission duration will be determined as part of the detailed mission analysis, taking into account ground station availability and visibility. Launch windows The Soyuz LV can be launched any day of the year, any time of the day respecting the specified lift-off time. The launch window is defined taking in to account the satellite mission requirements such as the orbit accuracy or the separation orbital position requirements for the right ascension of the ascending node [RAAN] and the respective ability of the launch vehicle to recover launch time error.
In case of shared dual launch, Arianespace will taken into account the launch windows of each co-passenger to define combined launch window. In order to allow the possibility of several launch attempts and account for any weather or technical concern resolution a minimum launch window of 45 minutes is recommended. The actual launch window of each mission and its impact on performance will be calculated as part of mission analysis activities.
Spacecraft orientation during the flight During coast phases of the flight the Attitude Control Systems allow the launch vehicle to satisfy a variety of spacecraft orbital requirements, including thermal control maneuvers, sun-angle pointing constraints, and telemetry transmission maneuvers. On the contrary, the active parts of the mission like ascent boost phases and upper stage orbital burns and TM maneuvers will determine the attitude position of spacecraft.
The best strategy to meet satellite and launch vehicle constraints will be defined with the Customer during the Mission Analysis process. Separation mode and pointing accuracy The actual pointing accuracy will result from the Mission Analysis. The following values cover Soyuz compatible spacecrafts as long as their balancing characteristics are in accordance with para. They are given as satellite kinematic conditions at the end of separation and assume the adapter and separation system are supplied by Arianespace.
In case the adapter is provided by the Satellite Authority, the Customer should contact Arianespace for launcher kinematic conditions just before separation. Possible perturbations induced by spacecraft sloshing masses are not considered in the following values. Higher spin rates are possible but shall be specifically analyzed. Orientation of composite around Z axis 2. Orientation of composite around Y axis 3. Spin-up 4.
Spacecraft separation 5. Spin down 6. Orientation for deorbitation Figure 2. For each mission, Arianespace will verify that the distances between orbiting bodies are adequate to avoid any risk of collision until the launcher final maneuver. For this analysis, the Customer has to provide Arianespace with its orbit and attitude maneuver flight plan, otherwise the spacecraft is assumed to have a pure ballistic trajectory i. After completion of the separation s , the launch vehicle carries out a dedicated maneuver to avoid the subsequent collision or the satellite orbit contamination.
Multi-separation capabilities The Soyuz LV is also able to perform multiple separations with mission peculiar payload dispensers or the internal dual launch carrying structure. A conceptual definition of this kind of dispenser is presented in Annex TBD, the dual launch carrying structure is defined in chapter 5. In this case the kinematics conditions presented above will be defined through the dedicated separation analysis.
For more information, please contact Arianespace. General During the preparation for launch at the CSG and then during the flight, the spacecraft is exposed to a variety of mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic environments. This chapter provides a description of the environment that the spacecraft is intended to withstand. All environmental data given in the following paragraphs should be considered as limit loads, applying to the spacecraft. Without special notice all environmental data are defined at the spacecraft base, i.
The following sections present the environment for the two configurations Soyuz a and Soyuz b. It is further noted that the introduction of the RD engine on the Soyuz b configuration is not expected to measurably affect either the quasi-static loads or the sine-vibration levels since its thrust is identical to that of the RD engine, and moreover, a sequenced shut-down profile is implemented to reduce the transient loads at the end of the third stage flight.
Mechanical environment 3. Steady state acceleration 3. On ground The flight steady state accelerations described hereafter cover the load to which the spacecraft is exposed during ground preparation. In flight During flight, the spacecraft is subjected to static and dynamic loads. Such excitations may be of aerodynamic origin e. The highest longitudinal acceleration occurs just before the first-stage cutoff and does not exceed 4.
The highest lateral static acceleration may be up to 0. The accelerations produced during Fregat flight are negligible and enveloped by the precedent events. Sine-equivalent dynamics Sinusoidal excitations affect the LV during its powered flight mainly the atmospheric flight , as well as during some of the transient phases. The envelope of the sinusoidal or sine-equivalent vibration levels at the spacecraft base does not exceed the values given in Table 3. The sinusoidal excitation above 40 Hz is insignificant.
Table 3. Maximum excitation levels are obtained during the first-stage flight. The random vibrations must be taken into account for equipment dimensioning in the 20 — Hz frequency range, considering that at higher frequency it is covered by acoustic loads.
Acoustic vibration 3. On Ground The noise level generated by the venting system does not exceed 95 dB. In Flight Acoustic pressure fluctuations under the fairing are generated by engine operation plume impingement on the pad during liftoff and by unsteady aerodynamic phenomena during atmospheric flight i. Apart from liftoff and transonic flight, acoustic levels are substantially lower than the values indicated hereafter. The envelope spectrum of the noise induced inside the fairing during flight is shown in Table 3.
It corresponds to a space-averaged level within the volume allocated to the spacecraft stack, as defined in Chapter 5. The acoustic spectrum defined below covers excitations produced by random vibration at the spacecraft base for frequency band above Hz.
It is assessed that the sound field under the fairing is diffuse. Shocks The spacecraft is subject to shock primarily during stage separations, fairing jettisoning, and actual spacecraft separation. The envelope acceleration shock response spectrum SRS at the spacecraft base computed with a Q-factor of 10 is presented in Table 3. These levels are applied simultaneously in axial and radial directions.
For customers wishing to use their own adapter the acceptable envelope at the launch vehicle interface will be provided on a peculiar base. The velocity may locally exceed this value; contact Arianespace for specific concern.
In Flight Pressure bar The payload compartment is vented during the ascent phase through one-way vent doors insuring a low depressurization rate of the fairing compartment. The difference between the pressure under fairing and free-stream external static pressures, at the moment of the fairing jettisoning, is lower than 0,2 kPa 2 mbar.
Thermal environment 3. Ground operations The environment that the spacecraft experiences both during its preparation and once it is encapsulated under the fairing is controlled in terms of temperature, relative humidity, cleanliness, and contamination. Thermal conditions under the fairing During the encapsulation phase and once mated on the launch vehicle, the spacecraft is protected by an air-conditioning system provided by the ventilation through the pneumatic umbilicals: high flow rate H , and through the launch vehicle for the last 45 minutes, when the gantry has been rolled away: low flow rate L.
See fig 3. Flight environment 3. This figure does not take into account any effect induced by the spacecraft dissipated power.
For dedicated launches, lower or higher flux exposures can be accommodated on request, as long as the necessary performance is maintained. Solar radiation, albedo, and terrestrial infrared radiation and conductive exchange with LV must be added to this aerothermal flux.
While calculating the incident flux on spacecraft, account must be taken of the altitude of the launch vehicle, its orientation, the position of the sun with respect to the launch vehicle, and the orientation of the considered spacecraft surfaces. This will be studied on a case by case basis. Other thermal fluxes 3. Thermal Flux Reflected from Separated Stages No thermal flux coming from separated stages need be considered.
The heat flow Q distribution along the spacecraft bottom surface for one of the thrusters pair is given in Figure 3. Cleanliness and contamination 3.
The LV materials are selected not to generate significant organic deposit during all ground phases of the launch preparation. During transfer between buildings the spacecraft is transported in payload containers CCU with the cleanliness Class All handling equipment is clean room compatible, and it is cleaned and inspected before its entry in the facilities.
The gantry not being airconditioned cleanliness level is ensured by the fairing overpressure. The LV systems are designed to preclude in-flight contamination of the spacecraft. The LVs pyrotechnic devices used by the LV for fairing jettison and spacecraft separation are leak proof and do not lead to any satellite contamination. The non-volatile organic contamination generated during ground operations and flight is cumulative. Electromagnetic environment The LV and launch range RF systems and electronic equipments are generating electromagnetic fields that may interfere with satellite equipment and RF systems.
The electromagnetic environment depends from the characteristics of the emitters and the configuration of their antennas. Range The ground radars, local communication network and other RF mean generate an electromagnetic environment at the preparation facilities and launch pad, and together with LV emission constitute an integrated electromagnetic environment applied to the spacecraft. The electromagnetic field The intensity of the electrical field generated by spurious or intentional emissions from the launch vehicle and the range RF systems do not exceed those given in Figure 3.
Actual spacecraft compatibility with these emissions will be assessed during the preliminary and final EMC analysis. Environment verification The Soyuz and Fregat telemetry system capture the low and high frequency data during the flight from the sensors installed on the fairing, upper stage and adapter and then relay this data to ground station.
These measurements are recorded and processed during postlaunch analysis, a synthesis of the results is provided to the customer. Should a Customer provides the adapter, Arianespace will supply the Customer with transducers to be installed on the adapter close to the interface plane if needed.
Introduction The design and dimensioning data that shall be taken into account by any Customer intending to launch a spacecraft compatible with the Soyuz launch vehicle are detailed in this chapter.
Design requirements 4. Spacecraft Properties 4. Payload mass and CoG limits Off-the-shelf adapters provide accommodation for a wide range of spacecraft masses and centre of gravity. See annexes referring to adapters for detailed values. Higher offsets can be accommodated but must be compensated on the LV side, and must therefore be specifically analysed.
Dynamic unbalance There is no predefined requirement for spacecraft dynamic balancing with respect to ensuring proper operation of the LV. However, these data have a direct effect on spacecraft separation. Frequency Requirements To prevent dynamic coupling with fundamental modes of the LV, the spacecraft should be designed with a structural stiffness which ensures that the following requirements are fulfilled. Dimensioning Loads 4. The design load factors are represented by the Quasi-Static Loads QSL that are the more severe combinations of dynamic and steady-state accelerations that can be encountered at any instant of the mission ground and flight operations.
The QSL reflects the line load at the interface between the spacecraft and the adapter or dispenser. The flight limit levels of QSL for a spacecraft launched on Soyuz , and complying with the previously described frequency requirements and with the static moment limitation are given in the Table 4.
Line loads peaking The geometrical discontinuities and differences in the local stiffness of the LV stiffener, holes, stringers, An adaptor mathematical model can be provided to assess these values.
Handling loads during ground operations During the encapsulation phase, the spacecraft is lifted and handled with its adapter: for this reason, the spacecraft and its handling equipment must be capable of supporting an additional mass of kg. Dynamic loads The secondary structures and flexible elements e.
Spacecraft RF emission To prevent the impact of spacecraft RF emission on the proper functioning of the LV electronic components and RF systems during ground operations and in flight, the spacecraft should be designed to respect the LV susceptibility levels given in Figure In particular, the spacecraft must not overlap the frequency bands of the LV, The spacecraft transmission is allowed during ground operations.
In any case, no change of the spacecraft RF configuration no frequency change, no power change is allowed between H0 — 1h30m until 20 s after separation. During the launch vehicle flight until separation of the spacecraft s no uplink command signal can be sent to the spacecraft or generated by a spacecraft on-board system sequencer, computer, etc For dual launch, in certain cases, a transmission time sharing plan may be set-up on Arianespace request.
Spacecraft transmitters have to meet general IRIG specifications. Spacecraft compatibility verification requirements 4. The spacecraft compatibility must be proven by means of adequate tests. The verification logic with respect to the satellite development program approach is shown in Table 4.
The mechanical environmental test plan for spacecraft qualification and acceptance shall comply with the requirements presented hereafter and shall be reviewed by Arianespace prior to implementation of the first test. Also, it is suggested, that Customers will implement tests to verify the susceptibility of the spacecraft to the thermal and electromagnetic environment and will tune, by these way, the corresponding spacecraft models used for the mission analysis.
Safety factors Spacecraft qualification and acceptance test levels are determined by increasing the design load factors the flight limit levels — which are presented in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 — by the safety factors given in Table 4. The spacecraft must have positive margins of safety for yield and ultimate loads. Table 4. Spacecraft compatibility tests 4. Static tests Static load tests in the case of an STM approach are performed by the customer to confirm the design integrity of the primary structural elements of the spacecraft platform.
Test loads are based on worst-case conditions — i. The qualification factors given previously shall be considered.
Sinusoidal vibration tests The objective of the sine vibration tests is to verify the spacecraft secondary structure dimensioning under the flight limit loads multiplied by the appropriate safety factors. The spacecraft qualification test consists of one sweep through the specified frequency range and along each axis.
Flight limit amplitudes are specified in Chapter 3 and are applied successively on each axis. A notching procedure may be agreed on the basis of the latest coupled loads analysis CLA available at the time of the tests to prevent excessive loading of the spacecraft structure.
However, it must not jeopardize the tests objective to demonstrate positive margins of safety with respect to the flight loads. Sweep rates may be increased on a case-by-case basis depending on the actual damping of the spacecraft structure. This is done while maintaining the objective of the sine vibration tests.
Sine Longitudinal Lateral Table 4. Random vibration tests The verification of the spacecraft structure compliance with the random vibration environment in the 20 Hz – Hz frequency range shall be performed. Three methodologies can be followed: Method Number One: Perform a dedicated random vibration qualification test. Above Hz, spacecraft qualification with respect to the random vibration environment is obtained through the acoustic vibration test.
Acoustic vibration tests Acoustic testing is accomplished in a reverberant chamber applying the flight limit spectrum provided in Chapter 3 and increased by the appropriate safety factors.
The volume of the chamber with respect to that of the spacecraft shall be sufficient so that the applied acoustic field is diffuse. The test measurements shall be performed at a minimum distance of 1 m from spacecraft.
Octave Center Frequency Hz Table 4. This test can be performed on the STM, on the PFM, or on the first flight model provided that the spacecraft structure close to the interface as well as the equipment locations and associated supports are equivalent to those of the flight model. The release test is performed twice. The difference derived from the above comparison is then considered to extrapolate the measured equipment base levels to the maximum levels that can actually be observed during clamp-band release.
Note that each unit qualification status can be obtained from environmental qualification tests other than shock tests by using equivalent rules e.
Method Number Two — Qualification by heritage An analysis is conducted on the basis of multiple previous clamp-band release tests i. The acceptance test consists of performing a clamp-band release under nominal conditions nominal tension of the band, etc.
This single release test is usually performed at the end of the mechanical fit-check. A flight type adapter with the associated separation systems and consumable items can be provided in support of these shock tests as an optional service.
Introduction The Soyuz launch vehicle provides standard interfaces that fit most of spacecraft buses and satellites and allows an easy switch between the launch vehicles of the European Transportation Fleet. This chapter covers the definition of the spacecraft interfaces with the payload adapter, the fairing, the dual launch structure and the on-board and ground electrical equipment. The spacecraft is mated to the LV through a dedicated structure called an adapter that provides mechanical interface, electrical harnesses routing and systems to assure the spacecraft separation.
Off-the-shelf adapters, with separation interface diameter of mm, mm, and mm are available. For dual launches, an internal carrying structure can be proposed, that houses the lower passenger and carries the upper passenger. The payload fairing protects the spacecraft from external environment during the flight as on the ground, providing at the same time specific access to the spacecraft during ground operations. The electrical interface provides communication with the launch vehicle and the ground support equipment during all phases of spacecraft preparation, launch and flight.
These elements could be subject of mission specific adaptation, as necessary, to fit with the Customer requirements. The reference axes All definition and requirements shall be expressed in the same reference axis system to facilitate the interface configuration control and verification.
Figure shows the three-stage vehicle and the Fregat upper-stage coordinate system that are the reference axis system. The clocking of the spacecraft with regard to the launch vehicle axes is defined in the Interface Control Document taking into account the spacecraft characteristics volume, access needs, RF links, ….
Encapsulated spacecraft interfaces 5. This volume constitutes the limits that the static dimensions of the spacecraft, including manufacturing tolerance, thermal protection installation, appendices …, may not exceed.
It has been established having regard to the potential displacement of the spacecraft complying with frequency requirements described in the Chapter 4. Allowance has been made for manufacturing and assembly tolerances of the upper part fairing, intermediate bay, upper stage and adapter , for all displacements of these structures under ground and flight loads, and for necessary clearance margin during carrying structure separation.
In the event of local protrusions located slightly outside the above-mentioned envelope, Arianespace and the Customer can conduct a joint investigation in order to find the most suitable layout. The payload usable volume is shown in Figure Accessibility to the mating interface, separation system functional requirements and noncollision during separation are also considered for its definition. Spacecraft accessibility The encapsulated spacecraft can be accessible for direct operations up to 4 hour 30 minutes TBC before lift-off through the access doors of the fairing structure.
If access to specific areas of spacecraft is required, additional doors can be provided on a missionspecific basis. Doors shall be installed in the authorized areas. The payload platform of the gantry is not air-conditioned, cleanliness in the fairing is ensured through the overpressure generated by the fairing ventilation.
Specific means can be provided TBC to ensure access from a protected area. The radiotransparent window may be replaced by RF repeater antenna. The access and RF transparent window areas are presented in Figure Special on-fairing insignia A special mission insignia based on Customer supplied artwork can be placed by Arianespace on the cylindrical section of the fairing. The dimensions, colors, and location of each such insignia are the subject to mutual agreement. The artwork shall be supplied not later then 6 months before launch.
Payload compartment description Nose fairing description The ST fairing consists of a two-half-shell carbon-fiber reinforced plastic CFRP sandwich structure with aluminum honeycomb core. The total thickness is approximately 25 mm. A mm-thick thermal cover made of polyurethane foam with a protective liner is applied to the internal surface of the cylindrical part of the fairing. The separation system consists of longitudinal and lateral mechanical locks linked together by pushing rods and connected to pyro pushers.
The final jettisoning is provided by lateral springs. This separation system, standard for Russian launch vehicles, produces low shocks at separation and allows its functionality to be verified during launch vehicle acceptance tests. The payload volume is shown in Figure Carrying structure description A dual launch internal carrying structure has been studied in order to make the best use of the Soyuz performance in Low Earth orbits such as SSO.
The usable volume offered for the upper and lower passengers are defined in Figure Any of the Soyuz adapters can be used in conjunction with this carrying structure to provide for separation. Mechanical Interface The Soyuz offers a range of standard off-the-shelf adapters and their associated equipment, compatible with most of the spacecraft platforms.
These adapters belong to the family of the Ariane and Vega adapters providing the same interface definition on the spacecraft side. Their only specificity is the accommodation to the Fregat upper stage standard interface plane with a diameter of mm , at the adapter bottom side. The Customer will use full advantage of the off-the-shelf adapters. All adapters are equipped with a payload separation system, brackets for electrical connectors.
In some cases to reduce the production time or facilitate the switch between LV, Ariane adapters can be used directly with the Soyuz LV. For this case a dedicated structure will be used to adapt the lower interface to the Fregat mating interface. The payload separation system is a clamp-band system consisting of a clamp band set, release mechanism and separation springs.
The electrical connectors are mated on two brackets installed on the adapter and spacecraft side. Standard Soyuz adapters: The general characteristics of the off-the-shelf adapters and adaptation structures are presented in the Table 5. A more detailed description is provided in the Annex 4.
A dispenser design, flight proven on previous missions, is given in Annex 4 as an example. In such cases, the Customer shall ask the Arianespace approval and corresponding requirements. Arianespace will supervise the design and production of such equipment to insure the compatibility at system level.
The upper and lover rings are made of aluminium alloys. Electrical and radio electrical interfaces The needs of communication with the spacecraft during the launch preparation and the flight require electrical and RF links between the spacecraft, LV, and the EGSE located at the launch pad and preparation facilities. The electrical interface composition between spacecraft and the Soyuz LV is presented in the Table 5. The wiring diagram for the launch pad configuration is shown on Figure The limitation on the number of lines available per spacecraft is presented in paragraph 5.
All other data and communication network used for spacecraft preparation in the CSG facilities are described in Chapter 6. Table 5. During this powered phase a waiver can be studied to make use of commands defined in this paragraph providing that the radio electrical environment is not affected. After the powered phase and before the spacecraft separation, the commands defined in this paragraph can be provided to the spacecraft.
To command operations on the payload after separation from the launch vehicle, microswitches or telecommand systems after 20 s can be used.
Initiation of operations on the payload after separation from the launch vehicle, by a payload on-board system programmed before lift-off, must be inhibited until physical separation. In case of launch abort after H0 — 2min 35 seconds, these lines will be re-connected in about 2 hours TBC. As a standard, and in particular for GTO launches, only 74 lines 2×37 are available at the spacecraftpayload adapter interface.
Lines composition The spacecraft-to-launch pad rooms LP room wiring consists of permanent and customized sections. This segment is TBC meters long. The customized section is configured for each mission. The Customer will provide the harness for this segment.
A description of these lines and their interfaces is given in Table 5. Electrical Characteristics of the lines The ground lines are configured to support a permanent current of up to 10 A by wires.
The LV on-board harnesses shall not carry permanent currents in excess of 4 A by wire. The voltage shall be less than Vdc. TBC To meet prelaunch electrical constraints, 60 seconds prior to the jettisoning of the umbilical mast and last-instant connectors, all spacecraft EGSE electrical interface circuits shall be designed to ensure no current flow greater mA across the connector interfaces. Additional umbilical lines Optional For mission-specific needs another umbilical connector may be added to the Fregat interstage section.
To establish this extension, Arianespace will provide a new set of harnesses between the spacecraft and the LP room. Due to the spacecraft to launch vehicle interface, the Customer is required to protect the circuit against any overload or voltage overshoot induced by his circuits both at circuits switching and in the case of circuit degradation. Dry loop command Optional TBD commands are available.
Spacecraft telemetry retransmission Optional The spacecraft telemetry data can be interleaved with the launch vehicle TM data and retransmitted to the LV ground station by the upper stage telemetry system during the flight. Power supply to spacecraft Optional Independent from LV on-board systems, an additional power, without regulation, can be supplied to the spacecraft through specific lines. The Customer should contact Arianespace for this option.
Pyrotechnic command Optional The Fregat has the capability to issue all needed and redundant orders to initiate adapter or dispenser separation systems. In addition to LV orders for spacecraft separation, other pyrotechnic commands can be generated by the Fregat power system to be used for spacecraft internal pyrotechnic system or in case where adapter with separation system is supplied by the Customer.
The electrical diagram is presented in Figure The main electrical characteristics are: Minimal current: 4. To ensure safety during ground operations, two electrical barriers are installed in the Fregat pyrotechnic circuits.
The first barrier is closed 5 seconds before lift-off, and the second one is closed 20 seconds after lift-off. During flight, the pyrotechnic orders are monitored by the Fregat telemetry system.
Electrical Continuity Interface 5. Shielding The umbilical shield links are grounded at both ends of the lines the spacecraft on one side and EGSE on the other. If the Customer desires it is also possible to connect to ground at the umbilical mast connector SHO1 and the last-instant connectors R The spacecraft umbilical grounding network diagram is shown in Figure For each LV and ground harnesses connector, two pins are reserved to ensure continuity of the shielding.
RF communication link between spacecraft and EGSE A direct reception of RF emission from the spacecraft antenna can be provided as an optional service requiring additional hardware installation on the fairing and on the launch pad. This option allows users to check the spacecraft RF transmission on the launch pad during countdown. Interface verifications 5.
Prior to the launch campaign Prior to the initiation of the launch campaign, the following interface checks shall be performed.
Specific LV hardware for these tests is provided according to the contractual provision. Mechanical fit-checks The objectives of this fit-check are to confirm that the satellite dimensional and mating parameters meet all relevant requirements as well as to verify operational accessibility to the interface and cable routing.
It can be followed by a release test. For a recurrent mission the mechanical fit-check can be performed at the beginning of the launch campaign, in the payload preparation facilities.
Electrical fit-check Functional interfaces between the spacecraft and the Fregat upper stage power supply, TM monitoring, commands, etc. Definition The electrical interface between satellite and launch vehicle is validated on each phase of the launch preparation where its configuration is changed or the harnesses are reconnected. These successive tests ensure the correct integration of the satellite with the launcher and help to pass the non reversible operations.
Spacecraft simulator The spacecraft simulator used to simulate spacecraft functions during pre-integration tests and ground patch panel cables will be provided by the Customer. The simulator can be powered from external source. During launch pad operation the COTE is installed in the launch pad rooms under the launch table.
Guiana Space Centre 6. Introduction 6. There are flights every day from and to Paris, either direct or via the West Indies. Regular flights with North America are available via Guadeloupe or Martinique. The administrative regulation and formal procedures are equivalent to the one applicable in France. The climate is equatorial with a low daily temperature variation, and a high relative humidity. The local time is GMT — 3 h. Figure 6. The European spaceport The European spaceport is located between the two towns of Kourou and Sinnamary and is operational since The respective location is shown in Figure 6.
Arianespace provides all needed support for the equipment handling and transportation as well as formality procedures. Small freight can be shipped by the regular Air France B cargo weekly flight. A dedicated Arianespace office is located in the airport to welcome all participants arriving for the launch campaign and to coordinate the shipment procedures.
The airport is connected with the EPCU by road, about 75 kilometers away. Cayenne harbour Cayenne harbor is located in the south of the Cayenne peninsula in Degrad des Cannes. The facilities handle large vessels with less than 6 meters draught. The port is linked to Kourou by 85 km road. The docking area is linked to EPCU by a 9 km road.
The EPCU provides wide and redundant capability to conduct several simultaneous spacecraft preparations thanks to the facility options. The specific facility assignment is finalized, usually, one month before spacecraft arrival.
S1 Payload Processing Facility The S1 Payload Processing Facility consist of buildings intended for the simultaneous preparation of several spacecraft.
The area location, far from the launch pads ensures unrestricted all-the-year-round access. The area is completely dedicated to the Customer launch teams and is use for all nonhazardous operations. The passage between buildings is covered by a canopy for sheltered access between the buildings. The storage facility can be shared between buildings. Offices are available for spacecraft teams and can accomodate around 30 persons. The standard offices layout allows to accommodate around 30 persons.
For Soyuz LV these facilities will be used also for the final spacecraft encapsulation under the fairing see paragraph 6. The area close location to the Ariane and Vega launch pads imposes precise planning of the activity conducted in the area.
The S3A building is dedicated to the middle-class spacecraft main tanks and attitude control system fuelling, integration with solid motors, weighing, pressurization and leakage tests as well as final spacecraft preparation and integration with adapter. The building is mainly composed of two Fuelling Halls of m 2 and m 2 , and one Assembly Hall of m 2. The building is shared with the safety service and Fire brigade. The S3E building is used by the spacecraft teams to carry out the passivation operations of the spacecraft propellant filling equipment and decontamination.
It is composed of one externally open shed of 95 m 2. It is safely located on the south-west bank of the main CSG road, far from launch pads and other industrial sites providing all-the-year-round access. EPCU S5 enables an entire autonomous preparation, from satellite arrival to fuelling taking place on a single site. The building configuration allows for up to 4 spacecraft preparations simultaneously, including fueling, and in the same time, provides easy, short and safe transfers between halls.
The three halls, transfer airlocks and the access corridors have a class , cleanliness. In addition to the main facility, the S5 area comprises the following buildings: – S5D, dedicated to final decontamination activities of satellite fuelling equipment, – S5E, dedicated to the preparation of SCAPE suits and training, dressing ,and cleaning of propulsion teams. The entrance to the area is secured at the main access gate.
The dimensions of the hall are properly sized for the integration activity. Specific operations can be controlled from the control rooms on S3C building. Soyuz Launch Site ELS « Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz » The Soyuz launch site is a dedicated area designed for launch vehicle final preparation, the upper composite integration with launch vehicle and final launch activities. The building is similar to the one used in Baikonur and Plesetsk.
No spacecraft or combined operations are conducted in this building. The support arms and launch table servicing equipment are identical to the other Soyuz launch pads used in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The mobile servicing gantry is equipped with a ceiling traveling crane for upper composite installation.
The mobile servicing gantry protect from the outside environment and constitute a protected room for all activity with the upper composite and satellite. The launch tower is equipped with an air-conditioning system providing clean air under the fairing. Up to 2 anti-sismic racks can be provided by Arianespace. Encapsulated payload transfer from S3 The Launch Centre is integrated in the CSG operational communication network providing capabilities to act as one of the entity affecting countdown automatic sequence.
Its location, a few kilometres from Kourou on the main road to the launch pads, provides the best conditions for management of all CSG activity. Along with functional buildings the Technical Centre houses the Mission Control Centre located in the Jupiter building. Environmental Conditions 6.
Mechanical Environment No specific mechanical requirements are applicable during the activity at the CSG except during transportation and handling. Power Supply All facilities used by the Customer for spacecraft activity during autonomous and combined operations are equipped with an uninterrupted power supply category III. Category II is used for the equipment which must be independent from the main power supply, but which can nevertheless accept the fluctuation a few milliseconds or interruptions of up to 1 minute: gantries, air conditioning, lighting in hazardous and critical areas, inverter battery charger, etc.
Communications Network 6. Operational data network The existing CSG network will extend its capability to cover new Soyuz facility and will provide the same level of quality. Data links are provided between the Customer support equipment located in the different facilities and spacecraft during preparation and launch.
Three main dedicated subsystems and associated protected networks are available. Encrypted data transfer is also possible. For confidentiality purpose, Customers can connect their equipment at each part of these direct and point-to-point dedicated optical fibers.
Range communication network The multifunctional range communication network provides Customer with different ways to communicate internally at CSG , and externally, by voice and data, and delivers information in support of satellite preparation and launch. The GSM system cellular phones are operational at CSG through public operator providing roaming with major international operator. For the satellite —based communication lines the antennas and decoder equipment will be supplied by Customer.
This network is modular and can be adapted for specific Customer request. These telephone sets can only call and be called by the same type of dedicated telephone sets. All communications on this network are recorded during countdown. By request this system could be connected to the Operational Intercom OI. CSG facilities are equipped with a paging system.
Beepers are provided to the Customers during their campaign. Videoconference communication system 6. Hazardous operations such as fuelling are recorded. This system is also used for distribution of launch video transmission. The system is activated through the consol of a Site managers. Transportation and Handling For all intersite transportation including transportation from the port of arrival of spacecraft and support equipment, CSG provides wide range of the road trailers, trolley and trucks.
These means are adapted to various freight categories as standard, hazardous, fragile, oversized loads, low speed drive, etc. The Payload Containers CCU ensures transportation with low mechanical loads and maintains environments equivalent to those of clean rooms. Spacecraft handling equipment is provided by the Customer refer to para. Any gases and liquids different from the standard fluid delivery different fluid specification or specific use: GN2-N60, deionized water … can be procured.
The Customer is invited to contact Arianespace for their availability. This service shall be requested by the Customer as option. Propellant analyses, except Xenon, can be performed on request.
Disposal of chemical products and propellants are not authorized at CSG and wastes must be brought back by the Customer. Work on Saturday can be arranged on a case-by-case basis with advance notice and is subject to negotiations and agreement of CSG Authorities. No activities should be scheduled on Sunday and public holiday.
In this case the spacecraft equipment shall be evacuated from the PPF Clean room 24 hours after spacecraft departure. The CSG is equipped with different storage facilities that can be used as for the temporary equipment storage during the campaign and, optionally, outside of the campaign. Security The French Government, CSG Authorities, and Arianespace maintain strict security measures that are compliant with the most rigorous international and national agreements and requirements and they are applicable to the three launch system Ariane, Soyuz and Vega and allow strictly limited access to the spacecraft.
The security management is also compliant with the US DOD requirements for the export of US manufactured satellites or parts, and has been audited by American Authorities e. Safety The CSG safety division is responsible for the application of the CSG Safety Rules during the campaign and especially for the equipment, operator certification, and permanent operation monitoring. Standard equipment for various operations like safety belts, gloves, shoes, gas masks, oxygen detection devices, propellant leak detectors, etc.
On request from the Customer, CSG can provide specific items of protection for members of the spacecraft team. During hazardous operations, a specific safety organization is activated officers, equipment, fire brigade, etc. Any activity involving a potential source of danger is to be reported to CSG , which in return takes all steps necessary to provide and operate adequate collective protection equipment, and to activate the emergency facilities.
The spacecraft design and spacecraft operations compatibility with CSG safety rules is verified according with mission procedure described in the Chapter 7. In addition the training courses for program-specific needs e. Customer assistance 6. Visas and Access Authorization For entry to French Guyana the Customer will be required to obtain entry visas according to the French rules.
Arianespace may provide support to address special requests to the French administration as needed. The access badges to the CSG facility will be provided by Arianespace according to the Customer request. Customs Clearance The satellites and associated equipment are imported into French Guiana on a temporary basis, with exemption of duties.
However, if, after a campaign, part of the equipment remains in French Guiana, it will be subject to payment of applicable local taxes. Arianespace will support the Customer in obtaining customs clearances at all ports of entry and exit as required.
Arianespace provides the transportation from and to Rochambeau Airport, and Kourou, at arrival and departure, as a part of the General Range Support. Medical Care The CSG is fully equipped to give first medical support on the spot with including first aide kits, infirmary, and ambulance. More over the public hospital with very complete and up to date equipment are available in Kourou and Cayenne. The Customer team shall take some medical precautions before the launch campaign: the yellow fever vaccination is mandatory for any stay in French Guiana and anti-malaria precautions are recommended for persons supposed to enter the forest areas along the rivers.
The details of this VIP accomodation shall be agreed with advance notice. Introduction To provide the Customer with smooth launch preparation and on-time reliable launch, a customer oriented mission integration and management process is implemented. This process has been perfected through more than commercial missions and complies with the rigorous requirements settled by Arianespace and with the international quality standards ISO V specifications. Mission management 7.
At the LSA signature, an Arianespace Program Director is appointed to be the single point of contact with the Customer in charge of all aspects of the mission including technical and financial matters. He is in charge of the information and data exchange, preparation and approval of the documents, organization of the reviews and meetings.
During the launch campaign, the Program Director delegates his technical interface functions to the Mission Director for all activities conducted at the CSG. An operational link is established between the Program Director and the Mission Director. Besides the meetings and reviews described hereafter, Arianespace will meet the Customer when required to discuss technical, contractual or management items. Mission integration schedule The Mission Integration Schedule will be established in compliance with the milestones and launch date specified in the Statement of Work of the Launch Service Agreement.
The Mission Schedule reflects the time line of the main tasks described in detail in the following paragraphs. A typical schedule for non-recurring missions is based on a months timeline as shown in Figure 7.
This planning can be reduced for recurrent Spacecraft, taken into account the heritage of previous similar flights, or in case of the existence of compatibility agreement between the Spacecraft platform and the launch system. For a Spacecraft compatible of more than one launch system the time when the launch vehicle type and configuration will be assigned to the Spacecraft will be established according to the LSA provisions.
Launch vehicle procurement and adaptation 7. The Customer will be involved in this process. During this review, all changes, nonconformities, and waivers encountered during production, acceptance tests and storage will be presented and justified. The final target of this activity is to demonstrate the correct dimensioning of the Spacecraft , the ability of the launch vehicle to perform the mission, to perform the hardware and software customization for the launch and to confirm after the launch the predicted conditions.
This activity can be formalised in a Compatibility Agreement for a Spacecraft platform. This document compiles all agreed Spacecraft mission parameters, outlines the definition of all interfaces between the launch system LV, operations and ground facilities and Spacecraft, and illustrates their compatibility.
This document is maintained under configuration control until launch. In the event of a contradiction, the document takes precedence over all other technical documents. Introduction To design the LV mission and to ensure that the mission objectives can be achieved and that the Spacecraft and the launch vehicle are mutually compatible, Arianespace conducts the mission analysis.
Mission analysis is generally organized into two phases, each linked to Spacecraft development milestones and to the availability of Spacecraft input data. Depending on Spacecraft and mission requirements and constraints, the Statement of Work fixes the list of provided analysis. Typically, the following decomposition is used: Analysis Preliminary run Final run Trajectory, performance, and injection accuracy analysis Spacecraft separation and collision avoidance analysis Dynamic Coupled Loads Analysis CLA ; Electromagnetic and RF compatibility analysis, Thermal analysis if necessary Note: The Customer can require additional analysis as optional services.
Some of the analysis can be reduced or canceled in case of a recurrent mission. Mission analysis begins with a kick-off meeting. The output of the Preliminary Mission Analysis will be used to define the adaptation of the mission, flight, and ground hardware or to adjust the Spacecraft design or test program as needed. Preliminary Electromagnetic and RF Compatibility Analysis This study allows Arianespace to check the compatibility between the frequencies used by the LV, the range, and the Spacecraft during launch preparation and flight.
The Spacecraft frequency plan, provided by the Customer in accordance with the DUA template, is used as input for this analysis. The results of the analysis allow the Customer to verify the validity of the Spacecraft dimensioning and to adjust its test plan or the emission sequence if necessary.
Preliminary Thermal Analysis A preliminary thermal analysis is performed if necessary. This analysis allows to predict the Spacecraft nodes temperatures during ground operations and flight, to identify potential areas of concern and, if necessary, needed adaptations to the mission.
A Spacecraft thermal model provided by the Customer in accordance with Arianespace specifications [TBD] is used as input for this analysis. The Final mission demonstrates the mission compliance with all Spacecraft requirement and reviews the Spacecraft test results see chapter 4 and states on its qualification. Once the final results have been accepted by the Customer, the mission is considered frozen. The DCI will be updated and reissued as Issue 2.
Final dynamic coupled loads analysis The final CLA updates the preliminary analysis, taking into account the latest model of the Spacecraft validated by tests. Final Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis The final electromagnetic compatibility analysis updates the preliminary study, taking into account the final launch configuration and final operational sequences of RF equipment with particular attention on electromagnetic compatibility between Spacecraft in the case of multiple launches.
Final Thermal Analysis The final thermal analysis takes into account the final thermal model provided by the Customer.
For ground operations, it provides a time history of the temperature at nodes selected by the Customer in function of the parameters of air ventilation around the Spacecraft. During flight and after fairing jettisoning, it provides a time history of the temperature at critical nodes, taking into account the real attitudes of the LV during the entire launch phase. The study allows Arianespace to adjust the ventilation parameters during operations with the upper composite and up to the launch in order to satisfy, in so far as the system allows it, the temperature limitations specified for the Spacecraft.
Spacecraft Design Compatibility Verification In close relationship with mission analysis, Arianespace will support the Customer in demonstrating that the Spacecraft design is able to withstand the LV environment. Customer shall describe their approach to qualification and acceptance tests.
The test plan shall include test objectives and success criteria, test specimen configuration, general test methods, and a schedule. It shall not include detailed test procedures. DW ABB abb. We have 60 years of developing and delivering productivity solutions. Our product offerings include built-to-need components, price alternative components, electric actuators, specialty workholding clamps, and motion control robots.
From single actuator solutions to multi-unit systems, PHD and Yamaha Robotics can provide complete solutions for practically any application requirement. To order a catalog, visit. Patent Pending. High speed data transmission in harsh environments The Max M12 product line includes board level connectors that mate to a PCB board with straight or right angle solder pins. The connectors transmit data in environments where there is high vibration, moisture, salt, dirt and debris.
Applications include camera and communication systems on construction, mining and agricultural equipment. It can also be used in rail and mass transit communication systems and for ruggedized factory automation. The field installable and repairable Max M12 offers discrete connections that seal in harsh environments without requiring overmolds.
They are backward compatible and can be mated with any standard M12 connector with the same indexing. All versions of this connector are IP67 or above, making them dust- and waterproof, resistant to high-pressure wash downs and water immersion. They are designed to endure a salt spray test for up to hours. This enhanced Max M12 PCB header mates to an in-line that can withstand connector-to-cable retention forces of N and contact retention forces to N.
The metal version is required for shielding. Both the 4- and 5-pin configurations are available with A, B, D and P polarity codes. Additional pin counts and codes are available upon request. All components and systems are conceived and designed in-house. Our industry experts and product specialists develop innovative products and efficient solutions for high-quality, cost-effective production with most likely, enhanced machine performance.
Throughout the globe, our production facilities share one common goal; quality. We take great pride in both our products and solutions. Direct drive offers more tractive force The MCR-T radial piston motor, for compact tracked loaders and other tracked vehicles, comes in frame size For improved efficiency, especially over long distances, the MCR-T units also allow high travel speeds at low diesel engine rotational speeds.
The compact dimensions mean that the motor completely fits in the track width of compact loaders. The MCR-T can withstand higher radial forces with its improved load distribution. The optimal position of the drive shaft allows the use of a simpler sprocket in comparison to conventional radial piston motors. An integrated flushing valve supports the cooling of the oil when used in closed hydraulic circuits, which therefore also lengthens the service life.
MCR-T radial piston motors are for continuous high rotational speeds so that compact tracked loaders can also cover longer distances. With the control valve integrated in the motor, the operator can gently and smoothly shift between travel speeds with the soft shift mode operating in both directions. The motor then runs with reduced displacement, reducing oil flow in the circuit and improving system efficiency.
Additionally, the direct drive of the MCR-T results in greater efficiency and lower noise than typical gearbox-based solutions. MCR-T motors function with a differential pressure of up to bar and the largest version achieves an output torque of up to 8, Nm. The displacement of the series ranges from ccm to 1, ccm. DW Bosch Rexroth boschrexroth. More conveying options for medical applications The SmartFlex flexible chain conveyor platform, available in an additional 85 mm width standard option, gives designers more options for applications in medical as well as packaging, food, assembly and other industries.
With this addition, SmartFlex Conveyors are now available in 4 standard widths: 65 mm 2. Other sizes that can be specially ordered include: 45 mm 1. These conveyors are engineered to exact customer specifications and shipped in sub-assemblies for fast and easy installation. With the Online Configurator D-Tools, users can design and engineer simple or complex conveyors to meet their needs in minutes.
This configuration tool delivers a complete 3D CAD assembly model for instant validation of fit. Accessories such as infeed and exit powered transfers allow smooth end transfers for products as small as 3 in. For additional flexibility to move product up or down and around equipment, the SmartFlex Helical Curve, Spiral, and Alpine conveyors are available. The SmartFlex Helical Curve allows incline or decline movement through corners and straights, and provides capability for vertical incline with minimal space.
Both the helical and spiral conveyors have chain design that allows the conveyor to maintain speeds and loads through the angled curve. WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly.
Call your local or a good distributor. Integrated control system shortens custom development process Converting machine builder Curt G. Joa, Inc. It must. The machines are massive, occupying two floors with a footprint measuring 60 meters long. They accomplish multiple manufacturing processes, including accepting roll-fed paper material in a continuous motion and automatically splicing products.
Not surprisingly, as machine complexity increased so did the design and development time required. Smarter machines with more automation, communication and integration capabilities entailed more programming and documentation time for the engineers.
The lengthy pre-production phase extended company investment and delayed delivery of machines to customers. With new machines capable. To further help streamline the machine design process, Joa relies on several design-software programs. The engineers use templates within the electrical schematic designs as a base and then. A schematics generator then helps create documentation needed for manufacturing, purchasing, panel building, modeling and more.
This bidirectional data transfer helps improve startup time by reducing the need for manually re-entering control data from engineering tools into the Rockwell Software Studio software. This allows any qualified customer engineer to open up a portal with a VPN connection, access the HMI to see controller operating data, and render the necessary changes.
All software on the machines is running on VMWare virtualized servers using thin clients. There is no longer a need for a large-capacity, expensive server, and the virtual environment provides a robust, secure and IoT-ready architecture using fewer servers to run the HMI and other software.
Although Joa customizes each of its machines, the various design-software systems let the machine builder standardize much of its machine design process. With more leadtime in the early design stages, customers benefit too. They have more opportunity to refine system features, ensuring greater satisfaction after delivery. Faster delivery and commissioning is a competitive advantage for the business.
Looking ahead, Joa plans to build on the synergy between EPLAN and Rockwell Automation as their global-market footprint grows and more customers embrace big data. Most of its customers now have some cloud-based capabilities, and they are looking for more ways to capture key data in smart machines.
DW Rockwell rockwellautomation. Up to chine design ndardized nt can be sta te n co se a b ta da odules. Vacuworx, Tulsa, Okla. The SS 2 atta chment lets The newest addition, the SS 2 vacuum lifting sysa machine lift st eel plate, tem, reportedly improves the versatility of the venersaw cut concrete able skid steer.
The SS 2 attachment lets a machine , granite and marble slab lift steel plate, saw cut concrete, granite and marble s, landscape pavers and othe slabs, landscape pavers and other materials. And, acr materials. The SS 2 can also be used with a variety of mini-excavators or small cranes using a clevis-hook connection. The vacuum system, which features a hydraulically driven vacuum pump, readily mates to any skid steer.
Quick-connect hydraulic hoses and a universal mounting plate make attachment quick and simple, which helps maximize productivity. The compact, aluminum design weighs just 98 lb without mounting plate but has a lifting capacity up to 2, lb.
The vacuum pump operates using the auxiliary hydraulics from the host machine minimum 10 gpm required with maximum pressure of 3, psi. The vacuum pump maintains a constant vacuum in a pressure reservoir. When activated, the system pulls a vacuum between the integrated 24 x 24 in. Tough elastomer-pad seals on the perimeter of the vacuum pad cover the material to be lifted and create the necessary suction. The vacuum seal holds until the operator activates the release — even in the event of a power failure.
The SS 2 is suited for floor, sidewalk, driveway, road and landscaping projects. Not only is vacuum lifting a safer alternative than hooks and chains, said Vacuworx officials, it also increases output and productivity. According to the company, vacuum-lifting systems can handle up to 10 times more material than conventional methods, are safer for workers, and help reduce the risk of accidents and lower payroll and insurance costs. Related Vacuworx vacuum and hydraulic lifting systems are designed for many applications and lift capacities.
Standard models lift a variety of materials including steel, plastic and ductile iron pipe, concrete pipe, pre-cast concrete slabs, culverts and road barriers, saw-cut concrete, and steel plate. Lifters can be attached to excavators and backhoes with or without a coupler system , wheel or track type loaders, cranes, pipe layers, skid steers, forklifts and knuckle booms and can also be mounted for a variety of in-plant applications.
DW Vacuworx vacuworx. Neocortex G2R thanks to its nce can artificial intellige een drink differentiate betw s as well as tie brands and varie cans faster used and unused kers.
Robotic flexibly sorts and restocks airline beverage trays The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell from Universal Robotics soon to be Universal Logic — and no relation to Universal Robots is now working in its fourth real-world application. The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell Neocortex G2R for short automates the normally manual task of unloading and restocking airline beverage carts after flights end and the carts return to airline catering kitchens.
More specifically, the Neocortex G2R flexibly sorts and replenishes myriad ounce beverage cans for payback on retrofits or new installations in less than a year. Airline-hub catering kitchens spend copious time replenishing beverages consumed in-flight from 9. Pitching already-opened The Neocortex G2R Cell handles sensor connection, calibration, PLC and robot communication, path planning, obstacle avoidance, vision guidance, inspection, database management, and learning.
Airline beve rage replen ishment is the fourth proven applic ation area of the Neoco rtex G2R Cell — with the others bei ng dynamic m achine tending, consu mer products order fulfillment, a nd pharmace uticalunit picking. It also determines cans that are opened and partially used, or unused and returned.
If the can is unused, Neocortex identifies the brand by directing the robot to pick it up and read its label. It then reuses these cans for the next new drawer it assembles — supplementing with new cans as needed based on the prescribed assortment.
The Neocortex G2R Cell is the first plugand-play robotic work cell for high-mix applications that must also handle high-volume applications scaled to a human form factor. Neocortex artificial intelligence provides humanlike flexibility at speeds far faster and more consistent than manual labor. So the Neocortex G2R Cell can handle cartons, bottles, tubes, bags, or cans for up to 1, picks per hour.
SmartUQ is a software tool for uncertainty quantification UQ and analytics that heightens fidelity of engineering and systems analysis by taking account of real-world variability and probabilistic behavior. Uncertainty quantification is the science of quantifying, characterizing, tracing and managing uncertainty in both computational and real-world systems. UQ seeks to address the problems associated with incorporating real-world variability and probabilistic behavior into engineering and systems analysis.
Nominal—that is, idealized—as opposed to real-world simulations and tests answer the question: What will happen when the system is subjected to a single set of inputs?
UQ moves this question into the real world by asking: What is likely to happen when the system is subjected to a range of uncertain and variable inputs?
UQ got its start at the intersection of mathematics, statistics and engineering. Drawing together knowledge from each of those fields has yielded a family of system-agnostic capabilities that require no knowledge of the inner workings of a system under study to make predictions about its likely behavior. Thus, a method that works on an engineering system may be equally applicable to a financial problem that exhibits similar behavior.
This makes it possible for many different industries to benefit from advances in UQ. Why UQ? Uncertainty is part of every system. It can arise from variations in measurement accuracies, material properties, use scenarios, modeling approximations and unknown future events. Uncertainty in model Most simulations are deterministic: the simulation response s are provided based on a given set of model inputs.
Simulation results obtained from these input conditions are then compared with criteria derived from a legacy of physical test data.
However, the practice of using extreme model conditions in this way may well fail to model reality with fidelity, and can easily overlook and omit various sources of uncertainties. Moreover, by not accounting for simulation uncertainties, the next steps may be difficult to decipher, as there can be numerous reasons for lack of agreement between simulation results and legacy testbased criteria. UQ: Probabilistic, not deterministic In contrast to that deterministic approach, UQ is a probabilistic approach that systematically accounts for sources of simulation uncertainties.
UQ methods are rapidly being adopted by engineers and modeling professionals across a wide range of industries because they can solve previously unanswerable questions. Quantify confidence in predictions. UQ methodology for statistical calibration. Source: SmartUQ Why now? As computational resources have become dramatically more available and affordable, and simulation and testing have grown increasingly sophisticated and revealing, it has become possible and feasible to accurately predict behavior of more and more real-world system designs.
Today, the frontier of engineering design has advanced to rapidly predicting the behaviors of systems when subjected to uncertain inputs. Monte Carlo methods require generating and evaluating large numbers of system variations, thus becoming computationally too expensive to apply to large-scale problems. More recent methods such as those incorporated in SmartUQ have made UQ easier to apply to small system designs, and feasible and affordable to use on large ones.
Sources and types of uncertainty Uncertainty is an inherent part of the real world, SmartUQ notes. No two physical experiments ever produce exactly the same output values, and many relevant inputs may be unknown or unmeasurable.
Uncertainty affects almost all aspects of engineering modeling and design. Engineers have long dealt with measurement errors, uncertain material properties and unknown design demand profiles by including safety factors. But deeper understanding and quantification of the sources of uncertainty will yield step-function gains in fidelity and quantified confidence of decision-making.
Uncertainties are broadly classified into two categories: aleatoric and epistemic. Thus, it may be considered inherent in a system, and parameters with aleatory uncertainty are best represented using probability distributions. Examples are the results of rolling dice or radioactive decay. Thus, epistemic uncertainty could conceivably be reduced by gathering the right information, but often is not because of the expense or difficulty of doing so.
Examples include batch material properties, manufactured dimensions and load profiles. Common uncertainty sources in simulation and testing Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions and transient forcing April These inputs may vary in large, recordable but unknown ways.
This is often the case with operating conditions, design geometries and configurations, loading profiles, weather, and human operator inputs. Uncertain inputs may also be theoretically constant or follow known relationships but have some inherent uncertainty. This is often the case with variations in measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material properties.
Uncertainties in simulation and testing appear in boundary conditions, initial conditions, system parameters, and in the systems, models and calculations themselves.
They fall into four categories: 1 Uncertain inputs. Uncertain inputs—Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and transient forcing functions may be subject to uncertainty. These inputs may vary in large, recordable, but unknown ways.
This is often the case with measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material property variations. Model form and parameter uncertainty— Every model is an approximation of reality. Modeling uncertainty is the result of assumptions, approximations and errors made when creating the model. Using gravity as an example, the Newtonian model of gravity had errors in the model form that were corrected by general relativity.
Thus, there is model form uncertainty in the predictions made using the Newtonian model of gravity. In addition, the parameters of both these models, such as gravitational acceleration, are subject to uncertainty and error. This uncertainty is often the result of errors in measurements or estimations of physical properties and can be reduced by using calibration to adjust the relevant parameters as more information becomes available.
Computational and numerical uncertainty— To run simulations and solve many mathematical models, it is necessary to simplify or approximate the underlying equations, and this introduces computational errors such as truncation and convergence error. For the same system and model, these errors can vary among different numerical solvers, and are dependent on the approximations and settings used for each solver.
Further numerical errors are introduced by the limitations of machine precision and rounding errors inherent in digital systems. Uncertainty in physical testing—In physical testing, uncertainty arises from uncontrolled or unknown inputs, measurement errors, aleatoric phenomena, and limitations in the design and implementation of tests such as maximum resolution and spatial averaging. These uncertainties result in noisy experimental data, and can necessitate replication and reproduction of scientific experiments to attempt to reduce the uncertainties in desired measurements.
This requires a high degree of confidence in the relevance of simulation results to the real world. For engineers, the benefit of UQ is to become better aware and informed of the uncertainties present in simulation results when using them to make critical design decisions.
Better informed decision-making leads to better product development outcomes. It was developed in cooperation with leading companies in the plastics industry. It is easy to operate and is suitable to experts and users without CAD know-how. In the Viewer, calculations take place quickly and precisely. During the process, the wall thickness check also detects areas with heavy changes in wall thickness.
Due to the fully automatic calculation of the projected area, the clamp force and thus the machine design can be determined with just a few mouse clicks without any CAD knowledge. Moreover, the Viewer has dynamic cutting as well as measuring functions. Analysis functions are supplemented by geometric model comparison, to indicate differences between models of different formats.
Additionally, for DMU examinations, there is a function to determine collisions in assemblies as well as to calculate clearances between all single parts or components and all surrounding parts. The latest version enables the creation of explosion views that can be animated as well as drawing creation as DWG files. Floating licenses with a borrowing function enable a simple, flexible use of the software within and outside of companies.
Drive web server access module. Sinamics V20 Smart Access web server module mounts directly onto a drive, transforming a. This module provides a WI-FI hot spot, which facilitates setup, programming, commissioning, production monitoring and maintenance on machines and production equipment. The module has a simple, embedded graphical user interface GUI. No separate app is required, nor is a written operator manual needed.
Communication distance is up to meters, enabling access to drives located in difficult to reach areas. A built-in, multi-color LED quickly shows status readout. In use, the Sinamics V20 Smart Access module requires only a few steps to set-up and no installation or download of additional software is needed. Users can monitor drive status including speed, current, voltage, temperature and power, as well as drive servicing, with an overview of alarms, faults and individual values. Fault codes can be transferred with e-mail to a local service provider.
Parameter adjustment, motor test functions and full data backup, storage and sharing with fast firmware downloads can all be accomplished with the web server. DW Siemens Digital Factory usa. Protect products during delivery A next-generation accelerometer is for long-period monitoring of the physical.
With its low power capabilities, the ADXL micropower high-g MEMS accelerometer targets Internet of Things IoT solutions where shock and impact on a unit during storage, transit, or use would adversely affect its function, safety, or reliability. Representative assets include materials inside shipping and storage containers, factory machinery, and battery powered products where there may be lengthy quiet periods punctuated by spontaneous, severe impacts. The resulting low current requirement of less than two microamps while waiting for an impact typically yields years of operation from a single small battery when the sensor is used in a motion-activated system.
Keeping the analysis localized saves power, time, and prevents unnecessary transfer of data for an event that is actually insignificant. DW Analog Devices analog. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:.
I nter net of Things. Designed as an off-the-shelf approach for quick turnaround needs, the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT Smart PT Select Mounted Spherical Roller Bearings suit conveyor and fan and blower applications in the aggregate, air and fluid handling, cement, and material and package handling industries. A suite of digital technology is built into and around this bearing. N EWS Legacy equipment holds valuable untapped data that is needed to improve business processes and decisions in almost every enterprise and every industry.
The partnership between IBM and Opto 22 enables developers to rapidly design, prototype, and deploy applications to connect existing industrial assets to the IBM Watson IoT platform and share their data, capabilities, and resources with other connected systems and assets, to build the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT.
Through this partnership, developers and systems integrators have a concise toolset for connecting the OT and IT domains. The partnership combines more than 40 years of OT domain expertise and innovation from Opto 22 with more than years of IT domain expertise and innovation from IBM.
The Watson IoT Platform reduces the need to focus on developing analytics systems and provides everything needed to harness the full potential of the Internet of Things. Developers can connect, set up, and manage edge-processing devices like programmable automation controllers from Opto 22 and apply realtime analytics, cognitive services, and blockchain technology to the data generated by these devices.
Cognitive APIs deliver natural-language processing, machine-learning capabilities, text analytics, and image analytics to help developers realize the potential of the cognitive era with the IBM Watson IoT Platform.
Connecting existing industrial assets to IT systems requires translating the electrical signals voltage and current in the physical world to the bits and bytes of the digital world.
These industrial products also communicate and support well-known Internet technologies to support IIoT applications. The future of industrial automation and process control lies in the rising API and data economies made possible through open standards-based technologies.
Your Total Power Solution The most trusted brands, all under one roof. Canfield Connector offers a complete line of highquality sensors at value pricing. We offer tie rod and groove mount products to cover a full range of applications. We also provide NEMA 6 designs, hazardous location versions and custom wire types and lengths. DW Opto 22 opto At the recent Hannover Messe Preview in Germany, a new collaborative industrial robot was unveiled, dubbed Franka Emika.
Consequently, investment is project specific and cannot be depreciated over several projects. Franka Emika, which features 7 degrees of freedom, is a first-generation collaborative robot system that is designed to assist humans. The construction is completely modular, ultra-lightweight.
It has a highly integrated mechatronic design, sensitive torque sensors in all joints, and human-like kinematics, making the system unique. Users can also seamlessly stream its data tom connect with Industry 4. It provides quick-buttons to customize the apps and to execute their features. The pilot is essential for teaching the robot via demonstration. For example, the user can simply press the guiding button and take the robot by hand to teach it what to do. After it learns the task, it operates.
Franka Hand can grasp firmly and quickly for high performance and flexible pick and place. The fingers can be exchanged to optimally grasp a wide variety of objects. Due to its force-sensitivity and compliance, it can release and lock the fixture mechanism of its fingers by itself. Hence, different optimized fingers can be seamlessly integrated into any automation processes, and manual tool exchanges become almost unnecessary.
DW Franka Emika franka. Our No. One or multiple locations. Handles very small to extra large fasteners. Patients treated on the GammaPod will likely only need between one to five treatments in order to eradicate certain breast cancers, which is much shorter than the current six-week, five days a week course of radiation.
At the core of this new machine is a moving bed for a prone patient and a patented two-cup system that holds and stabilizes the breast with the target. This allows a targeted and powerful dose of radiation using 36 Cobalt sources that can be administered in new and unique ways, with less dose to normal tissue.
The GammaPod from Xcision Medical Systems aims to eliminate early stage breast cancer with as little as one treatment. A highly accurate and targeted radiation dose means less dosing to healthy tissue. Rotary servo table drives optoacoustic imaging system Scientists at Tomowave Laboratories use technologies based on light and sound to make imaging systems for the healthcare industry.
These technologies use optoacoustic and laser ultrasonic methods to produce modalities such as a laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system, which uses pulses of laser light with a dark red color. Optoacoustic tomography OAT is a technique for generating highresolution images of biological tissue that scatters light waves, typically biological tissue.
Biological tissue absorbs this light, causing it to heatup by a fraction of one degree. The resulting temperature increase causes an increase in pressure, which generates ultrasonic optoacoustic waves. The imaging scanner uses arrays of transducers to measure these ultrasound waves at different locations to generate images of internal tissue of different human and animal organs, such as breast or prostate.
These systems listen to the sound of light, allowing doctors to detect and diagnose cancer and other conditions. Recently, engineers at Tomowave developed a system that combines light and sound to generate three-dimensional images of tissue submerged in the imaging module, primarily the tissue of small animals used for research purposes and development of new contrast agents or therapeutic methods.
This optoacoustic tomography system is the first of its kind to produce functional 3D images of biological tissue with equally high resolution in each volumetric direction. The system provides comprehensive information on anatomy and function. These images are especially useful for studying the distribution of blood and its oxygenation level. Imaging module Preclinical research systems rotate the object of study, while the module itself rotates in systems used in clinical settings such as breast imaging systems.
Noninvasive breast imaging systems apply the same technology to produce three-dimensional volumetric optoacoustic images and a stack of two-dimensional ultrasonic images, allowing for image co-registration. These systems produce scans at different wavelengths in minutes with minimal patient discomfort.
Custom software processes the volumetric data according to the specific items of interest, which may include hemoglobin content, oxygen saturation and vasculature visualization. The imaging system uses a PSRUT low-profile rotary servo table from IntelLiDrives to rotate the imaging module at a constant speed, which is programmed in advance. The movement is designed using precise motor controls, gear boxes, and linear bearings, as well as five linear encoders on the bed and two rotary encoders on the bowl system.
Even movements that occur while the system is without power are translated into accurate values once the system is powered up again. The absolute encoders are used for a secondary positional measurement to verify correct positioning which ensures the accuracy of the delivered dose. The direct mounting and absolute calibration provide real-time quality assurance of the bed positioning system. With a patient lying face down on the machine bed, rather than on their back, the breast to be treated naturally falls further away from the chest wall, helping to minimize dose to organs in that region.
These linear encoders are directly mounted on the two table support columns. On each column, Xcision separately monitors the height and lateral offset of the table and the fifth monitors the length axis. The linear encoders are rigidly mounted to the table.
The LIC exposed encoders are characterized by permitting absolute position measurement both over large traverse paths up to 28 m , at high accuracy and at high traversing speed, although Xcision only needs around mm of travel.
The absolute nature of the linear encoders is critical because it allows for detection of primary system failure or calibration error. According to Maton, with the redundant secondary system, the position of the patient is confirmed to be free of such failure or calibration errors, thus ensuring treatment of the correct location in the breast. Your Partner moving forward! From traditional industry standards to specialized couplings for the next generation of emerging markets, Eaton continues to provide quick disconnect coupling solutions to meet your needs.
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We had started off with relative magnetic encoders in our design, but they were not satisfactory for a couple of reasons. First, we had the problem of having to rotate very slowly in order to find the zero point at each power. The inner cup is designed to.
M ot i o n constrain the shape of the breast. Suction between the cups gently pulls the breast to completely fill the inner cup, and immobilize it.
The patient is imaged on a CT scanner, then without removing the cup, moved to the treatment device and the cup is locked into the treatment bed. A copper wire referred to as a fiducial marker embedded in the cup is used to establish a 3D coordinate system which is used for treatment planning to create the bed position sequence control points for the treatment. The focused and concentrated dose of radiation is delivered according to this sequence.
The focus means that the dose will fall off sharply outside the target volume, reducing dose to healthy breast tissue, organs such as the heart and lungs, and to the skin. This decrease in collateral dose minimizes unwanted exposure and side effects.
The planned treatment is based on the established coordinate system and motion control, and includes a specific amount of time for the radiation beams to remain in each position in order to achieve the correct distribution of dose.
The system is designed to match a planned dose and delivered dose within one millimeter. But they may be involved in the design of highperformance servo-controlled systems in which mechanical parameters such as stiffness, mass, and damping are interchangeable with proportional, integral and derivative parameters of a PID controller. So, the design or sizing of mechanical components for automated setups should be done with good understanding of the motion controller and its associated filters.
The tool interface is shown in Figure one: Overview of the tutorial webtool. Based on a simple positioning system model, it lets users change both PID and mechanical parameters of the model and observe their effects on system performance. Design or sizing mechanical components for automated designs is more effective with an understanding of motion controllers. Relationship of servo parameters and mechanical phenomena PID servo parameters and mechanical design parameters of high-performance automation tools are closely related.
One self-study webtool can demonstrate the effects of both servo and mechanical parameters of a typical positioning system on its dynamic performance and stability. The tool we demonstrate lets users select stage parameters that characterize the actual plant — and then use iterative strategies to select an optimal set of PID parameters to maximize overall system performance for robust, safe, and stable operation. Block diagram and system modeling The block diagram of the model as shown in Figure two: Block diagram of the model represents a simplified closed-loop servo system of a positioning stage.
It includes a PID controller, a stage plant , feedback loop, reference position command Xr and actual stage position X. X is sensed by an encoder or by any other positioning feedback device.
They are the most influential mechanical parameters on the dynamic performance of most positioning systems. Input parameters are in yellow boxes.
Results are in blue boxes. Settling time after a step input is shown on the upper chart. Frequency responses of the plant PID controller as well as closed-loop and open-loop transfer functions are shown on the bottom.
Access this tool at optineer. Also use the tool for learning by changing system parameters and clicking RUN again to observe their effects on results. As shown in figure two, a driving motor force F acts on the stage block as an input and results in the actual stage position X as an output. Transfer functions and phase angles The explicit relationship between the output X and input Xr of the closed-loop servo system requires simultaneous solution of the two differential equations. The solution is simplified from differential equations in time domain t to algebraic equations in frequency domain s by using their Laplace transform.
The Laplace transform H s of our closed-loop transfer function is represented:. The phase of output X with respect to input Xr is measured in degrees.
That makes it a positive feedback inside the controller and a source for possible instability of the closed-loop servo system. Plant frequency response and stability of closed-loop servo systems When we RUN the webtool after clicking EXAMPLE, the results in the blue boxes below the stage parameters show two important stage characteristics of any automation system — the lowest natural resonance frequency and the damping coefficient. High performance machines are typically designed for high stiffness K and low moving mass M to get the highest value for the lowest natural frequency.
The frequency response Bode plot of the stage is shown in Figure three: Frequency response of the stage plant. In this figure, we see that the gain has an approximately constant value all the way up to the natural frequency. At the natural frequency, the gain increases with a peak bounded by the magnitude of the damping coefficient.
Similarly, the phase starts at zero degrees in low frequencies. Designing hydraulic systems to perform flawlessly under less-than-ideal conditions is hard enough. The Lee Company. Plus many applications in between. If you require precise fluid control, and absolute reliability, go with the experts. Contact The Lee Company. C o n t r o l Real dynamic systems have multiple natural frequencies and usually multiple axes. But the single-axis model in this webtool is a good performance estimator of most positioning systems.
Optimal choices for the simple model have mass, stiffness, and damping parameters that yield the lowest natural frequency and damping coefficient of the more complex system. These two-system characteristics are easily measured for any complex system by an impact test and an accelerometer that traces settling time decay. PID controller frequency response Many control systems have in addition to a position-feedback loop inner velocity and current feedback loops.
Yet they all share the same basic closed-loop transfer function H s as shown in figure three. The difference is in the complexity of their H s expression and the numbers of zeros and poles, with which the controller filters are shaped.
A zero is a frequency at which the gain becomes zero, and a pole is the frequency at which the gain goes to infinity. Although these complex filters are beyond the scope of this tool, the PID as used in our model is considered a classic filter, which is used in many controllers. It is simple having only one pole and two zeros , relatively easy to understand, and a good one with which to start training for an intuitive understanding of servo-system performance.
M o t i o n When we click RUN, the corner-points results of the integral and derivative gains appear in the blue boxes below the yellow PID parameters.
Corner points are the frequencies where the integral gain and the derivative gain cross the proportional gain. Together they define the shape of a trough, as shown in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller. Looking at the gain of the PID frequency response in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller, we see that the integral contribution on the left side of the trough amplifies the error signal at low frequencies and attenuates it at high frequencies.
The derivative on the right side amplifies the high frequencies and attenuates the low frequencies. The proportional gain in between the two corner frequencies defines the bottom of the trough. So if we want to reshape the trough and move the corner point of the integral gain to the left for example we decrease the integral gain. But if we want to move the corner point of the derivative gain to the right, we decrease the derivative gain and vice versa. Similarly, if we want to raise the bottom of the trough we increase the proportional gain The reader may test these trends by making the changes in the webtool and observing the results on the trough position and shape.
In a general machine design, the proportional gain Kp and the motor constant Kf act as mechanical stiffeners K which improve the response time. The derivative gain Kd acts as a mechanical damper B which attenuate high oscillations.
The integral gain Ki may act in some cases as a mechanical attenuator such as the inertial effect of a moving mass M. However, in positioning systems it is mostly used in overcoming position errors due to friction.
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The DL ball screw and lead screw actuators utilize recirculating guide technology to provide a low profile and compact design solution. Our DW series double wide is engineered to create a wider mounting platform while still maintaining the same low profile height as our standard width DL actuators.
This double wide design is ideal for applications that need a greater carriage mounting area or where axial play must be minimized. Open-loop frequency response and phase margin When we multiply the two transfer functions — including the plant G s and controller K s — we create the open-loop transfer function K s G s , as shown for our EXAMPLE in Figure five: Frequency response of the open-loop transfer function. The open-loop frequency response is an important visual aid for phase margin and gain margin, which are the indicators of system stability.
The physical meaning of this expression is that when an output. This positive feedback tends increase the position error instead of reducing it —potentially making the system unstable. To become unstable, the feedback of actual position X needs to be positive, but it also must be equal or greater than the reference signal Xr with a gain equal or greater than 1.
In this unstable condition, the servo controller pumps in external energy to the system that continuously increases the oscillation amplitude of the stage. If we look at the response to the step input in time domain as shown in Figure six: System response to a step input in time. Centralia St. Elkhorn, WI Phone: This is a safety margin to stability, which is called phase margin.
Bandwidth considerations for design work Another aspect of the closed-loop transfer function H s is that when the open-loop gain K s G s is very high, the closed-loop system gain is about 1. When the open-loop gain is very low, the closed-loop transfer function resembles the open-loop transfer function.
The frequency at that point is called the position bandwidth. Consider one example. So we expect the servo system to drive the stage with a very small position error in all frequencies lower than the bandwidth. Above the bandwidth frequency, the servo system may be incapable of following the input position without error. Similarly, if disturbing forces act on the stage at higher frequencies than the bandwidth, the servo may be incapable of rejecting them, and other means such as feedforward loops — beyond the scope of this article may be required.
A fourth is mounted to a table and wheeled between tasks. The application required no scripting and was created by a journeyman machinist with minimal training. Scan code to read case study and watch the video: www. Here, we simply add a zero to the stiffness value and then click RUN. We see that natural frequency increased as expected by a factor of sqrt 10 to Also notice that the bandwidth dropped from its original value of 10 to about 1 Hz and the settling-time response became sluggish.
This shift decreased the position bandwidth and slowed down the stage. To increase the low-frequency gain which was lost in the previous iteration we may try to increase the integral gain Ki by a factor of 10 by adding a 0 to the integral gain value Ki and clicking RUN. Results in Figure seven: Servo tuning process with PI gain changes show the left side of the trough increased, bandwidth went back to about 10 Hz, and the resulting response became faster yet oscillatory.
As mentioned, this is one condition to ensure system stability. Another condition for stability is gain margin — the distance in dB between the zero-dB line and the open-. Figure eight shows it to be about 15 dB, which occurs at about 80 Hz. The chart in figure eight also shows the phase margin and the bandwidth as discussed earlier. The rationale of the gain-margin requirement for stability is like that of the phase margin. When the phase is , we need to ensure that output is lower than the input with a gain magnitude of less than 1.
Otherwise, the servo will command the motor to add increasing energy to the system, which increases output indefinitely — and makes the system unstable.
Results may be noticeable as loud audible noise, high vibration, and at high enough gain and low enough damping a possible catastrophic failure. Servo systems are typically tuned to gain margins greater than 15 dB. Mechanical improvements for better design performance To attenuate the ringing effect as shown in figure seven and shorten the settling time response, we can try to increase the mechanical damping.
As shown in figure nine, increasing the mechanical damping B by a factor of 10 gives a smoother motion profile and reduced settling time — from longer than msec in the previous iteration to msec in this one. Built for long-term reliability. Choosing the right IMS insulated metal substrate can make the difference of a successful product or not.
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System optimization with multiple iterations We may continue the iterative process of tuning system parameters for optimal performance by trial and error or by recommended tuning processes. Several widely used tuning techniques involve a PID parameter that is changed until the stage starts ringing. Then, the parameter value is reduced and the next parameter is increased until it resonates the system again. This process continues until the designer gets a good settling profile and the settling time is minimized to an acceptable value.
An example of what a good tuning profile may look like in time domain is shown in Figure ten: Optimal system performance. Settling time in this iteration is reduced to Note that the webtool presented in this article is provided as a courtesy of Optinet Inc.
The webtool is primarily intended as a self-study tutorial of simultaneous effects that PID and mechanical parameters have on the performance and stability of automated mechanical systems.
Innovative design enhancements make flat cables strong candidates for applications where round cable was once the natural choice. Edited by: Mary C. Flat cable has been around for about 60 years, since Cicoil invented the ribbon cable for IBM computers in Over the decades it has been a favorite in high end computing, military and aerospace, robotics and motion control devices.
Its advantages include superior flexibility, electronic noise abatement, and packaging efficiency. Its limiting factor over this time has been the need for unique termination techniques—prepping for connectors has largely required hand work.
A new type of flat cable has been developed by Cicoil Corporation that promises to put this last hurdle into the past, opening the potential for engineers to take advantage of flat cable advantages while using the common cable prep tools and automated processes currently in use with round cables.
Reliability — The simplicity of flat cable with its parallel conductor geometry eliminates many of the common sources of wiring errors and malfunctions. Conductors are registered one-toone with the terminating connector or board so proper contact assignment is almost automatic.
Weight reduction — The use of flat cable often eliminates much of the conventional wire weight. Such things as redundant insulating materials, fillers and tapes are unnecessary. In addition, the composite flat cable construction is mechanically strong enough to eliminate the need to include large conductors for strength. The copper cross-section can thus be reduced to only that necessary to carry current loads or to satisfy voltage drop requirements.
Space efficiency — Elimination of unnecessary insulation,. Additionally, their low profile enables flat cables to hug surfaces and take advantage of tight or normally unused space.
A rectangular cross-section lets flat cables stack or layer with almost no wasted space between cables, providing maximum conductor density for a given volume. Flexibility — Flat cable is extremely flexible when bent in the plane of its thin cross-section. This flexibility has been used in applications where continuous or high flexing is necessary, as in drawers, doors, rotating arms, and so forth. Greater strength — Flat cables have high strength because all conductors and insulators equally share tensile loads.
Consistent electrical qualities — The conductor spacing is fixed and the geometry of the cable is constant.
Download Windows 10.Directory List Medium | PDF | Internet | World Wide Web
This update includes new stability improvements for the update components in Windows 10 Version The update components include files and resources that work together with the servicing stack engine in Windows These components make sure that quality updates are installed seamlessly and that they improve the reliability and security of Windows Only certain builds of Windows 10 Version require this update.
Devices that are running those builds will automatically get the update downloaded and installed through Windows Update. This update is also offered directly to Windows Update Client for some devices that do not have the most recent updates installed. The English United States version of this software update installs files that have the attributes that are listed in the following tables. The dates and the times for these files on your local computer are displayed in your local time together with your current daylight saving time DST bias.
Additionally, the dates and the times may change when you perform certain operations on the files. Sign in with Microsoft. You’re signed in. You have multiple accounts. Windows 10, version , all editions More Need more help? Expand your skills. Get new features first. Was this information helpful? Yes No. Thank you! Any more feedback? The more you tell us the more we can help.
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